SOME OF THE PRISONERS
Reproduction: Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand, Berlin
General der Infanterie z.V. Alexander von Falkenhausen
RANK: General der Infanterie
CAPTURED: Pragser Wildsee
DATE OF BIRTH: 29
PLACE OF BIRTH: Blumentahl/Kreis
DATE OF DEATH: 31 July 1966
PLACE OF DEATH: Nassau/Lahn
OCCUPATION: Regular Soldier
NEXT OF KIN:
- Sekondeleutnant: 13 March 1897 (renamed Leutnant on 1 January
- Oberleutnant: 18 May 1907
- Charakter als Hauptmann: 19 November 1909
- Hauptmann: 22 March 1910
- Major: 22 March 1915
- Turkish Oberstleutnant: 27 June 1916
- Oberstleutnant: 18 December 1920 (without RDA)
- Oberstleutnant: 1 February 1922 (RDA 1 October 1920)
- Oberst: 1 April 1924
- Generalmajor: 1 April 1928
1 October 1929
als General der Infanterie: 8 March 1934
der Infanterie z.V.: 1 September 1940
Commands & Assignments:
March 1897: Entered the Army as a Sekondeleutnant in Oldenburgisches
Served in the 3. Ostasiatisches
[East Asian] Infanterie-Regiment of the German Expeditionary
Corps during the Boxer Rebellion in China.
Adjutant of the II. Battalion of Infantry Regiment 91.
October 1904-20 July 1907: Detached to the War Academy.
April 1908: Detached to the Great General Staff.
March 1910: Aggregated into the Great General Staff.
April 1910: Transferred into the Great General Staff.
March 1912: Military Attaché at the Embassy in Tokyo, Japan.
October 1914: General Staff Officer of the 89th Reserve Infantry Division.
November 1914: General Staff Officer of the 31st Infantry Division.
May 1916: Detached to the German Military Mission in Turkey.
May 1916: Chief of the General Staff of the Rear Staging Area Inspectorate
of the Turkish 2nd Army.
January 1917: Inspector of the Rear Staging Area Inspectorate of the
Turkish 2nd Army.
March 1917: Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish Army Group Caucasus.
July 1917: Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish 7th Army. [On 19 September 1918, British General Sir
Edmund H.H. Allenby’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force launched a spectacular offensive against
the Turkish Forces in Palestine commanded by
German General der Kavallerie (also Turkish Field Marshal) Otto Liman
von Sanders, with the opening of the Battle of Meggido. General Allenby’s forces tore through and then annihilated the
bulk of the Turkish 8th Army (General Djevad Pasha) along the Mediterranean
coast while simultaneous attacks against the adjacent Turkish 7th Army
(General Mustapha Kemal – later Kemal Atatürk and President of Turkey)
led to that army’s envelopment and virtual destruction. The remnants
of General Kemal’s army and the neighboring Turkish 4th Army (General
Ahmed Djemal Pasha) retreated along the Jordan River Valley while being
incessantly pursued and attacked by Allenby’s cavalry and the Royal
Air Force. In the meantime, Arab forces in the north led by Lieutenant-Colonel
T.E. Lawrence cut Turkish lines of communications and captured Deraa.
After taking Damascus on the 1st of October, General Allenby’s forces
pursued the Turks to Aleppo capturing the city on 25 October 1918. Five
days later, Turkey bowed out of the war and concluded an armistice with
the Allies. Note: Future General der Panzertruppe Heinrich Eberbach and inmate
of Special Camp 11 at Bridgend, served as a liaison officer in the Turkish
8th Army in Palestine. On 23 September 1918, Leutnant Eberbach was captured
by the British while commanding the rearguard of the retreating Turkish
October 1918: Delegated with the post of the German Military Plenipotentiary
in Constantinople, Turkey.
1919: Representative of the High Command of the Army on the Commission
for the Handling of Polish Questions, Danzig.
May 1919: Relived from this position and transferred to Grenadier Regiment
May 1919: Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the II Army Corps.
October 1919: Chief of the General Staff of Wehrkreis [Military District]
April 1920: Transferred into the Reich Defense Ministry.
February 1921: Chief of Staff of the Inspectorate of Army Training and
March 1922: Chief of Staff of the 6th Division.
January 1925: Commander of Infantry Regiment 10.
February 1927: Commander of the Dresden Infantry School.
January 1930: Retired from the Army.
1934-July 1938: Military Advisor to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in
July 1939: Placed at the disposal of the Army.
August 1939: Commanding General of the Deputy IV Army Corps and Commander
of Wehrkreis IV, Dresden.
May 1940-15 July 1944: Military Commander of Belgium-Northern France.
[Headquartered in Brussels, General von Falkenhausen’s command was responsible
for the administration of the German military occupation of Belgium
and northern France east of the Somme River. While the Military Commanders
of Belgium-Northern France and France (see below) were primarily responsible
for internal security and political matters within their respective
occupation zones, overall operational control of the German troops actually
defending the “Atlantic Wall” in Western Europe was vested in the Commander-in-Chief
West. On 15 July 1944, General von Falkenhausen retired from the Army
and was succeeded in his post by General der Infanterie Martin Grase.
Effective 18 July 1944, the title of this position was changed to Armed
Forces Commander of Belgium-Northern France. General Grase continued
to serve in this capacity until 16 September 1944 when the position
was permanently deleted as the Allied liberation of Belgium and northern
France made its continued existence redundant. Note:
Headquartered in Paris, the Military Commander of France was responsible
for the administration of the German military occupation of France west
of the Somme River. This post was held successively by General der Flieger
(later General der Infanterie) Otto von Stülpnagel from 25 October 1940;
General der Infanterie Karl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel (a cousin of Otto
von Stülpnagel) from 13 February 1942; and General der Flieger Karl
Kitzinger from 22 July 1944-4 October 1944.]
May 1940-31 May 1940: At the same time, Military Commander of the Netherlands.
June 1940-31 July 1940: At the same time, Military Commander of Luxembourg.
July 1944: Army High Command Leader Reserve.
July 1944: Mobilization regulation waived (suspected of involvement
in the 20 July 1944 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler).
July 1944-4 May 1945: Arrested by the Gestapo for complicity in the
assassination plot and imprisoned in several concentration camps including
May 1945: Liberated by U.S. troops while being evacuated from Dachau
by SS guards.
1945-1948: Prisoner of war in British and later American custody. [After
being held in various prisoner of war camps, including Special Camp
11 at Bridgend, General von Falkenhausen was transferred to Prisoner
of War Enclosure (PWE) No. 29 at Dachau, Germany.]
Extradited to Belgium.
March 1951: Sentenced to 12 years’ imprisonment in Brussels for the
deportation of about 25,000 Belgian Jews and the execution of Belgian
hostages, but released three weeks later.
Pour le Mérite Order: 7 May
1918, Major, Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish 7th
Army. [Awarded for outstanding leadership and military planning during
the successful operations against British General Sir Edmund H.H. Allenby’s
raids across the Jordan River in March and May
Cross in Silver: 20 April 1943,
General der Infanterie z.V., Military Commander of Belgium-Northern
Crown Order, 4th Class with Swords
Royal Hohenzollern House Order, Knight’s Cross with Swords
Iron Cross, 1st Class (1914)
Iron Cross, 2nd Class (1914)
Merit Cross, 1st Class with Swords
Merit Cross, 2nd Class with Swords
Military Merit Order, 3rd Class with Swords
Military Merit Order, 4th Class
of the Württemberg Crown, Knight’s Cross with Swords
Friedrich Order, Knight 2nd Class with Swords
General Honor Decoration, “for Bravery”
House and Merit Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, Honor Knight 1st
Class with Swords and Laurel Wreath
Friedrich August Cross, 1st Class
Friedrich August Cross, 2nd Class
of Honor for Combatants 1914-1918
Order, Knight of Justice
Officers’ Long Service Cross (Not authorized for wear after the establishment
of the Third Reich-era Armed Forces Long Service Awards on 16 March
Forces Long Service Award, 1st Class (25-year Service Cross)
Forces Long Service Award, 3rd Class (12-year Service Medal)
- Austrian Order of the Iron Crown, 3rd Class with War Decoration
Military Merit Cross, 3rd Class with War Decoration
Osmanie Order, 3rd Class with Sabers
Mejidie Order, 2nd Class with Sabers
Imtiaz Medal in Silver with Sabers
Liakat Medal in Gold with Sabers
War Medal (“Iron Crescent”)